The June war was a watershed in the history of the modern Middle East. In six days, the Israelis defeated the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian armies, seizing large portions of their territories. Two veteran scholars of the Middle East bring together some of the most knowledgeable experts in their fields to reassess the origins and the legacies of the war. Each chapter takes a different perspective from the vantage point of a different participant, those that actually took part in the war and also the world powers that played important roles behind the scenes. Their conclusions make for sober reading.
The Arab-Israeli War: Origins and Consequences (Cambridge Middle East Studies) [Wm Roger Louis, Avi Shlaim] on hiqiwaryjiqy.tk *FREE* shipping on. Editorial Reviews. Book Description. The June war was a watershed in the history of the modern Middle East. In six days, the Israelis defeated the Egyptian.
At the heart of the story was the incompetence of the Egyptian leadership and the rivalry between various Arab players who were deeply suspicious of each other's motives. Israel, on the other side, gained a resounding victory for which, despite previous assessments to the contrary, there was no master plan. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review.
Sorry, the book that you are looking for is not available right now. Diverse social and political movements had emerged to challenge the political, geopolitical and social status quo.
Whilst ideologically, these movements had problematic attitudes to gender equality, nevertheless, they provided a terrain upon which young, middle class women could subvert gendered hierarchies and transgress dominant norms of gendered respectability, by participating in street demonstrations, joining political groups, challenging authority, and disobeying parents. Some were even arrested.
In this way, women aligned their performances of radical new gender constructs with resistance to the socio-political and geopolitical status quo. However, this post revolutionary wave in the Arab countries was eventually defeated by Western allies in the region.
In particular, US support for Egypt amounted to billions of dollars in aid after President Anwar al-Sadat signed the peace treaty with Israel in President Sadat first attempted to undermine radical political movements by allowing Islamists to operate openly on university campuses, in contrast to the rule of his predecessor Gamal Abdel-Nasser, under whom Islamists had been imprisoned and even executed.
Yeah, so those final years in university, there were the Islamists on the one hand and the Nasserists on the other hand.
And the confrontations were violent, […] students got beaten up. Of course, we as women, we did not get beaten up. But we received a lot of abuse. So I was happy to graduate.
Sadat undermined some of the gains for middle class women through the introduction of infitah or economic reforms privileging the private sector. The relative decline in public sector wages as a consequence of infitah disproportionately impacted women, for whom the public sector was the employer of first choice. On 17 January, workers walked out of their factories, and were later joined by thousands of students, civil servants, and other Egyptians, who marched on downtown Cairo.
Protests spread throughout the country. All in all, demonstrators were killed and eight hundred injured by security forces. Thousands of leftists were rounded up and imprisoned, accused of attempting to overthrow the regime. I was arrested at university and I was charged with attempts to overthrow the regime and joining a secret organization and all the rest of the list of accusations by the state security that is still used until now. I spent forteen or fifteen months in jail. The wide scale clampdown on activists after heralded the end of the leftist student movement as a force within Egyptian politics.
Many of the underground Marxist organizations began to break up.
Similar to what we have seen in Egypt since the summer of , many activists became disillusioned and withdrew from public activism. Many took time out to read, pursue careers or doctoral studies abroad, reflecting upon and revising their previous political-ideological beliefs.
Women who attended university in the s remarked to me that there was a near absence of political activism on Egyptian campuses beyond Islamist student groups. A central part of the counter-revolution was the restoration of the gender status quo ante, in which women were expected to comply with gendered hierarchies and notions of female respectability. In , a group of women activists and lawyers created a coalition against the repeal of the relatively progressive amendments to the personal status law, amongst other initiatives in the s see Al-Ali for further details.
Retrieved 10 December A compelling analysis considers the ways Israel has used the memory of the Holocaust to define its existence and politics. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Syria: playing with fire David Lesch; 4. New York Times. The reservists trained three or four days a month [ citation needed ] and went back to civilian life the rest of the time. An Israeli sailor was killed and four wounded, and two of the ships were damaged.
Indeed, they successfully integrated the transformation of gender norms into demands for broader sociopolitical transformations see various chapters in El Said, Meari and Pratt. As I wrote last year , activists are facing a huge challenge in their simultaneous attempts to maintain their dynamic paradigm for gender justice, to resist state cooptation and top-down impositions, and to embed revolutionary gender constructs from the grassroots-upwards. Women activists face similar dangers today in the context of an ongoing counter-revolution across the Arab world.